STUDY OF SOCIO ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS FOR POULTRY PRODUCTION AND TRADING (The case of duck and guinea-fowl)
Moïse Kalambaie B. Mukanya, Léonard Mwanasaka Kabuita
The study we have made revolves around the socio-economic constraints during the production and the commercialization of ducks and guinea-fowls in the city of Kisangani. It has been found at a given period, a lack of infatuation on the part of breeders to raise these two kinds of birds. Many of them have been interested in chickens rearing, instead. Their lack of attraction in raising ducks and guinea-fowls is due to economical ones. The former include the theft and the killing of the birds and the hostility of the surroundings. The latter is justified by the fact that these birds are generally sold at a loss in comparison with chickens. The failure to master modern techniques in order to conduct breeding in a judicious way is another cause of discouragement especially when there are many losses. This research study aims at the identification of constraints which hinder the production and commercialization of ducks and guinea-fowls eggs as well as their meat in Kisangani. It also aims at helping popularizers of breeding knowledge to orientate their policy of poultry-products in general and those of ducks and guinea-fowls breeding in particular. We have made our investigation in order to gather data from breeders, sellers and consumers of ducks and guinea-fowls living in the six communes of Kisangani riz Kabondo, Lubunga, Makiso, Mangobo and Tshopo. The analysis of data has allowed us to determine the correlation coefficient (r) 2 and the determination coefficient (r2). The latter has helped us to judge the sense of the partners arbitration in fixing prices. The test of khi-two has helped us to see whether the breed of guinea-fowls and the breeder of ducks are bound to same constraints of social, economic and technical order. As far as the discussion of the findings are concerned we can say that in Kisangani poultry-farming is essentially made by men and children (95%). The intervention of women is occasional. The breeding activity takes place in all the six communes of Kisangani. But the production of eggs by a local duck is lover that of a Pekin duck and that of a Khaki Campbell. This is especially due to the lack of nutrition ingredients which should be added to the food intake. The weight is also lighter than that of a cross-breed duck (2.25 kg for the local drake and 1.860 kg for the local duck). As for the hatching rate, we have found that it is about 84.53%. This means that the local duck is also a good brooder. The hatching rate of a guinea-fowl is 71.15% when they have been hatched by a local hen. But the rate is 56.86% when the eggs have been hatched by the guinea-hen itself. The mortality is 57.51% for the ducklings and 87.5% for young guinea-fowls. This is due to the bad way of breeding, the weakness of young fowls and their wandering without any protection as well as some poultry diseases. The food-intake is made from a mixture of ground rice, fish, bones, soya beans, blood, shell, caterpillars, green, oil-cake, etc. It has an impact on the production of eggs whether rich or poor. As far as the fowls diseases are concerned we have investigate into common diseases such as diarrhea, coccidiose, the plaque of the duck, etc. Because of the lack of appropriate veterinary drugs, most breeders use human drugs such as chloramphenicol, terramycine, ampicilline and bactrim without any success. At the market, the breeders of ducks sell them at a low price whereas the one of guinea-fowls sells his products at a fixed price. Consumers' choice for the duck is justified by the price which is low, the weight, and their alimentary habit. This speaking of constrains which impede the production we can mention the weak intensity of eggs laying and mostly a high mortality rate of ducklings and of young guinea-fowls. To these constraints we can add the theft and the killing of the birds and the outbreaks of some fowls diseases. As far the commercialization constraints are concerned we can mention the low price of fowl which discourage breeders. In order to vulgarize poultry-farming and reach the objective it is advisable to find a solution to social, economic, and even technical constraints.