Ndoc Faslia

PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES IN ALBANIA

Ndoc Faslia, Stavri Afezolli

Abstract
Livestock is considered as a very important activity in Albania. Its production occupies about 50% of agriculture production structure. At the end of the last century the political system has changed in Albania like in the West Europe. These changes have had a direct reflection on the economy of the country, bringing it to a total transformation. This was an opportunity for the creation and development of new business in agricultural sector. Consequently the state farms were replaced by about 350.000 individual farms. About 290.000 farms are livestock farms. Livestock private businesses are exposed from the risk and competition, which makes their economic activity difficult. Productivity and quality of production remain the most important elements in livestock sector. In this context, protection and management of animal genetic resources (local races) have a very important role. In this paper we will try to treat the problems of the National Action Plan for protection and management of these local races, like an important document for sustainable development. Implementation of this plan is a complex process and involves public institutions, policy-makers, academic staff and the farmers themselves.

Key words: animal genetic resources, livestock, farmer, sustainable development, national action plan, animal races


PROTECŢIA ŞI MANAGEMENTUL RESURSELOR GENETICE ANIMALE ÎN ALBANIA

Ndoc Faslia, Stavri Afezolli

Rezumat
Cresterea animalelor este considerata o activitate forate importanta īn Albania. Productia animala ocupa aproximativ 50% din structura de productie agricola. La finele secolului trecut, sistemul politic albanez a devenit asemanator cu cel vest-european. Aceste schimbari s-au reflectat direct īn economia tarii, conducānd-o spre transformari depline. Aceasta conjunctura a fost oportuna pentru crearea si dezvoltarea de noi afaceri īn sectorul agricol. Prin urmare, fermele de stat au fost īnlocuite de aproximativ 350000 ferme individuale, din care 290000 se ocupa de cresterea animalelor. Pe de alta parte, afacerile private din zootehnie sunt expuse riscului si concurentei, ceea ce face ca activitatea lor economica sa se desfasoare cu dificultate. Cantitatea de produse si calitatea acestora ramān cele mai importante elemente de urmarit īn sectorul zootehnic. Īn acest context, protejarea si managementul resurselor genetice animale (rase locale) joaca un rol foarte important. Lucrarea de fata īncearca sa trateze aspecte ale Planului National de Actiune, destinat protectiei si managementului acestor rase locale, ca document important pentru dezvoltarea durabila. Implementarea acestui plan este un proces complex ce implica institutii publice, legislatori, membri ai corpului academic si chiar fermieri.

Cuvinte cheie: resurse genetice animale, animale de ferma, dezvoltare durabila, plan national de actiune, rase