Ioana Nicolae

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THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON GENETIC MATERIAL INTEGRITY IN BUFFALOES

Ioana Nicolae, A.T. Bogdan, A. Bota, Nicoleta Isfan, L. Harceaga, Maria Serdaru, Cristina Petrescu, Daniela Vidmichi

Abstract
This paper shows that animals may be used as biological indicators of environmental pollution by using cytogenetic tests, such as those we applied to buffaloes. In the present study we report the preliminary results of our investigation concerning the increases of SCEs found in the buffalo females with chromosome fragility expressed by many gaps, breaks and fragments. In order to give a measure of the biological effect of pollutants on genetic material integrity, the SCEs test has been applied. The cytogenetic investigation carried out on a group of 14 subfertile females presented a higher percentage of abnormal cells (gaps, chromatid breakages, chromosome breaks and fragments) comparative with the normal females. We found significant differences between the normal females and the females with chromosomal fragility. The number of SCEs/cell varied from 11 to 17 and even 21 in some cells. The mean number of SCEs/cell in the 14 subfertile females was higher (X=13.9) than those observed in the control group (X=7.3). The results of chemical analyses of forages used for animal feeding revealed the presence of aflatoxin at higher doses (100,36ppb) then permitted (≤4,0ppb). Although it is still difficult to establish whether the high chromosomal fragility we found is related to the effect of aflatoxin from forages, we must take into consideration that some of toxicity effects occurs at cellular level and it is well known that aflatoxin causes DNA changes, cell deregulation, cellular changes and death.

Key words: environmental pollution, chromosome fragility, buffaloes


EFECTELE POLUĂRII MEDIULUI ASUPRA INTEGRITĂŢII MATERIALULUI GENETIC LA BUBALINE

Ioana Nicolae, A.T. Bogdan, A. Bota, Nicoleta Isfan, L. Harceaga, Maria Serdaru, Cristina Petrescu, Daniela Vidmichi

Rezumat
In lucrarea de fata prezentam rezultatele preliminare obtinute în urma aplicarii testului citogenetic unui nucleu de 14 femele de bivol cu tulburari de reproductie. In urma examenului citogenetic a fost identificat un numar foarte mare de celule anormale caracterizate prin prezenta rupturilor mono- si bicromatidice, atât pe autosomi cât si pe heterosomi, a formatiunilor de tip gap si chiar a pierderii de fragmente cromozomale. Pentru a aprecia daca integritatea materialului genetic este afectata de prezenta agentilor toxici din mediul poluant am aplicat tratamentul de bandare SCEs (Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Astfel, media schimburilor intercromatidice/celula identificate a fost semnificativ mai mare la femelele cu fragilitate cromozomala (X=13.9) comparativ cu cele din lotul martor (X=7.3). Rezultatele analizelor chimice efectuate furajelor utilizate în hrana animalelor au evidentiat prezenta aflatoxinei în doze mult mai mari (100,36ppb) decat cele permise(≤4,0ppb). Având în vedere efectul toxic al aflatoxinei la nivel celular, care poate provoca modificari la nivelul ADN, dereglari celulare si chiar moartea celulara, se pare ca fragilitatea cromozomala identificata este determinata de prezenta aflatoxinei în furajele ingerate de animalele investigate. De asemenea, acest studiu atrage atentia asupra rolului animalelor ca indicatori biologici ai prezentei agentilor toxici în mediul înconjurator.

Cuvinte cheie: poluarea mediului, fragilitate cromozomala, bivoli