Y. Nys


FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO IMPROVEMENT IN EGG QUALITY

Y. Nys

Abstract
The criteria for assessing external and internal quality of eggs include such diverse and important aspects as safety, nutritional, organoleptic and technological properties of eggs and is influenced by a broad range of factors such as the physiology, genetics, nutrition and management of the hens. Genetics are an efficient tool to improve quality but historically egg productivity was the first priority producing spectacular improvement. Selection for egg quality was used mainly to avoid any negative shift in eggshell quality or internal defect. However, internal quality has taken on greater importance for about 10 years and development of molecular genetics is promising for selecting hens with superior egg quality. Nutrition is important for controlling eggshell quality and can successfully enrich the egg in some minor components of interest for human nutrition. The system of production influences the hygienic quality of eggs, This is particularly true in the alternative systems to cage production. Egg safety can have a very large impact on egg consumption and is highly dependant on government regulation. A promising area for improvement is the development of non invasive and rapid physical techniques to measure eggshell and internal egg quality at the egg packing plant. The sensitivity of this technique can enlarge the number of downgraded egg but eliminate egg at risk for the consumers and is also providing new tools for genetic selection. Egg quality has therefore been continuously improved as has the demand for higher quality eggs from the consumers!

Key words: egg quality genetic nutrition rearing

FACTORI CARE CONTRIBUIE LA ĪMBUNATATIREA CALITATII OULUI

Y. Nys

Rezumat
Criteriile de apreciere a calitatii interne si externe a oualor includ mai multe aspecte, ca de exemplu: siguranta alimentara si unele proprietati nutritionale, organoleptice si tehnologice. Acestea sunt influentate de o paleta larga de factori, precum fiziologia, genetica, nutritia si managementul pasarilor ouatoare. Genetica reprezinta un instrument eficient de īmbunatatire al calitatii, dar, din punct de vedere cronologic, productia numerica de oua a fost considerata prioritara si cunoscuta ca avānd īmbunatatiri spectaculoase. Selectia pentru calitatea oualor s-a aplicat īn principal pentru a evita regresele īn privinta calitatii cojii sau aparitia unor defecte interne. Cu toate acestea, calitatea interna a capatat mai multa importanta īn ultimii 10 ani, genetica moleculara fiind o unealta promitatoare īn selectia gainilor care produc oua de calitate superioara. Nutritia este importanta īn controlul calitatii oualor si poate īmbogati cu succes oul īn unele componente chimice minore, dar de mare interes pentru nutritia umana. Sistemul de productie influenteaza calitatea igienica a oualor, mai ales īn cazul sistemelor ce constituie alternative la exploatarea clasica, īn baterii de custi. Aspectele de siguranta alimentara a oului pot avea un impact major asupra consumului acestui produs dar sunt īn acelasi timp dependente de aspecte legislative si administrative. O zona promitatoare pentru cercetare si dezvoltare o constituie dezvoltarea tehnicilor fizice non invazive si rapide de masurare a calitatii cojii si a continutului oului, la nivel de statie de sortare/ambalare a oualor. Sensibilitatea acestor tehnici poate conduce la cresterea numarului de oua declasate dar si la eliminarea oualor cu risc pentru consumatori, punānd īn acelasi timp la dispozitie noi instrumente pentru selectia genetica. Prin urmare, calitatea oualor s-a īmbunatatit continuu, pe masura intensificarii exigentelor si cererii consumatorilor pentru oua de calitate superioara!

Cuvinte cheie: calitate ou, genetica, nutritie, crestere