Y. Nys


RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS AT INRA (FRENCH NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR AGRONOMIC RESEARCH)

Y. Nys, F. Guillou, J.B. Coulon and P. Chemineau

Abstract
INRA Animal Physiology and Livestock Systems Division (PHASE) forms a large scientific community (>500 scientists, >1200 workers) concerned by biology, physiology and animal sciences having animal production and food qualities as endpoints. PHASE should propose ecologically intensive systems of animal production maintaining farmer income. In 2007, French animal productions represented 17% of the total European (UE25) animal production, being leader for bovine and poultry. During the last 30 years, there was specialization, concentration and intensification of the animal production system. In parallel, consumers gave more importance to safety, quality, and specificity of products, to ethical and environmental considerations resulting in new European regulations. Sequencing of genomes, wide transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches has opened the way to integrative biology. The PHASE priorities are therefore functional genomics, sustainable development of agriculture, knowledge and acceptability of biotechnologies, animal welfare, meat, milk and egg qualities for human feed. The objectives are to maintain France and Europe among the leaders of animal productions and to increase our scientific knowledge on the biology and breeding of fish, birds and mammals within their farming systems. PHASE aims to develop techniques for sustainable livestock systems and to understand the fundamental mechanisms of physiological functions which shape the phenotype and qualities of animal products. For information see http://www.international.inra.fr/ and http://www.inra.fr/compact/nav/externe/en/departements/ecrans/17.

Key words: animal physiology, product, sustainability, food

ACTIVITATILE DE CERCETARE ALE INRA (INSTITUTUL NATIONAL FRANCEZ DE CERCETARI AGRONOMICE) ĪN DOMENIUL FIZIOLOGIEI SI SISTEMELOR DE CRESTERE A ANIMALELOR

Y. Nys, F. Guillou, J.B. Coulon and P. Chemineau

Rezumat
Divizia pentru Fiziologie Animala si Sisteme de Crestere a Animalelor (PHASE) formeaza o comunitate stiintifica extinsa (>500 oameni de stiinta, >1200 lucratori) preocupata de biologie, fiziologie si zootehnie, avānd productiile animale si calitatea alimentelor ca obiective majore. PHASE trebuie sa propuna zootehnistilor variante ale sistemelor ecologice intensive de crestere a animalelor, asigurānd īn acelasi timp si profitabilitatea fermelor. Īn 2007, Franta a detinut 17% din totalul productiei europene (U.E. 25) īn zootehnie, fiind lider īn sectoarele bovin si avicol. Īn ultimii 30 de ani, s-a produs o specializare, concentrare si intensivizare a sistemului zootehnic. Īn paralel, consumatorii au īnceput sa dea o importan?a sporita sigurantei, calitatii si specificitatii produselor, precum si aspectelor etice si de mediu rezultate din noile reglementari europene. Abordarile analitice care implica secventierea genomica, transcriptomica de masa, proteomica si chiar metabolomica au deschis noi cai de cercetare īn biologia integrativa. Prin urmare, prioritatile PHASE sunt: genomica functionala, dezvoltarea durabila a agriculturii, cunoasterea si gradul de acceptare a biotehnologiilor, bunastarea animalelor, calitatea carnii, laptelui si a oualor īn raport cu alimentatia umana. Obiectivele principale sunt mentinerea Frantei si a Europei īntre liderii mondiali ai productiei zootehnice si aprofundarea nivelului de cunoastere stiintifica asupra biologiei si cresterii speciilor piscicole, aviare si de mamifere, īn conditiile sistemelor specifice exploatare. PHASE īsi propune sa dezvolte tehnici aplicabile unor sisteme zootehnice durabile si sa īnteleaga mecanismele fundamentale ale unor functii fiziologice care modeleaza fenotipul si calitatea produselor animale. Pentru informatii suplimentare, accesati si paginile de internet: http://www.international.inra.fr/ si http://www.inra.fr/compact/nav/externe/en/departements/ecrans/17.

Cuvinte cheie: fiziologie animala, produs, sustenabilitate, alimente