V. Ujica


STUDIES OF QUANTITATIVE GENETICS AT THE POPULATIONS OF HORSES USED IN THE EQUESTRIAN SPORTS FROM ROMANIA

V. Ujica, I. Dulugeac, Mita Enache, M. Dolis, Rodica Danaila, M. Burlica

Abstract
The quantitative characters have a complex genetic determininism, their forming and control being mainly due to the major genes (Mather, 1941). This determines distinguishable effects on the phenotype that they control, only through the action cumulated with other such genes, where the denomination of polygenes with cumulative or additive action is derived from.
In our country, the cumulative genetic researches regarding horses are relatively few, which is projected in the elaboration of some modern programs of genetic improvement of horse populations.
For the horses used in the equine sports in Romania, the most recent researches were carried out by our team, whose analyses and conclusions are presented synthetically in the present paper.
A common characteristic of the heritability of characters at the Sports Horse, resulted from our researches, is represented by the degree of strong genetic determination for the analyzed characteristics, which is in correspondence with the data mentioned in the specialty literature.
It can be considered that the actions of genetic improvement within the analyzed populations, have been led towards the direction of hereditary fixing of characters which determine the body format, the body mass and the increase of energetic capacity; also, the stronger genetic variability within these populations of horses ensures a rapid effect of selection and an increased safety in obtaining the desired selection effect.

Key words: horses, equestrian, equine, sports, entertainment

STUDII DE GENETICA CANTITATIVA LA POPULATIILE DE CABALINE FOLOSITE ĪN SPORTURILE HIPICE DIN ROMĀNIA

V. Ujica, I. Dulugeac, Mita Enache, M. Dolis, Rodica Danaila, M. Burlica

Rezumat
Caracterele cantitative au un determinism genetic complex, formarea si controlul lor datorāndu-se, īn principal, genelor majore. Acestea determina efecte sesizabile asupra fenotipului pe care īl controleaza numai prin actiunea cumulata cu alte asemenea gene, de unde si denumirea de poligene cu actiune cumulativa sau aditiva. Actiunea aditiva a poligenelor fundamenteaza transmiterea intermediara, fata de media caracterelor parentale, a caracterelor cantitative si determina variatia continua a acestora.
Rezultatele tuturor cercetarilor efectuate cu scopul de a studia comportamentul ereditar al caracterelor cantitative la animale au confirmat ipoteza ereditatii poligenice si, īn consecinta, legile de transmitere mentionate.
Īn tara noastra, cercetarile de genetica cantitativa la cabaline sunt relativ putine, ceea ce se resimte īn elaborarea unor programe moderne de ameliorare genetica a populatiilor de cabaline.
Pentru caii folositi īn sportul hipic din Romānia, cele mai recente cercetari au fost efectuate de colectivul nostru, ale caror analize si concluzii sunt redate sintetic īn prezenta lucrare.
O caracteristica comuna a heritabilitatii caracterelor la Calul de Sport o reprezinta gradul de determinare genetica puternica pentru īnsusirile analizate, ceea ce concorda cu datele mentionate īn literatura de specialitate.
Se poate considera ca actiunile de ameliorare genetica, īn cadrul populatiilor analizate, au fost conduse īn directia fixarii ereditare a caracterelor care determina formatul corporal, masivizarea corporala si sporirea capacitatii energetice, ca variabilitatea genetica mai ridicata īn cadrul acestor populatii de cabaline asigura un efect rapid al selectiei si o siguranta sporita īn obtinerea efectului din dorit al selectiei.

Cuvinte cheie: cai, ecvestru, hipic, sport, agrement