BODY MASS INDEX DYNAMICS AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN SWISS MICE RECEIVING BRILLIANT BLUE FCF (E 133) AND AZORUBINE (E 122) IN DRINKING WATER
Cristina Gabriela Radu-Rusu, M.I. Pop
Among the extensive list of approved additives in human food industry, colourings (dyes - either naturally originated or synthetic) are widely used, in almost all processed food. The latter ones are frequently associated in humans (mostly in children) with the onset of altered behavioural conditions, such as the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of two food colourings given 35 days to 120 Swiss mice: CON group - control, plain water; BLU group - 50 ppm E133 - brilliant blue FCF (mostly used in beverages and sweets); AZO group - 50 ppm E122 - azorubine (mostly used in concentrated soups and sweets). The starting hypothesis (the usage of experimental factors will not modify the reasoning criteria - body mass index BMI and behavioural pattern) was invalidated. The mice in the experimental groups were underweighted (-16.5% BMI in AZO group, and -20% BMI in BLU group) (p<0.05; p<0.001). The ethogram also changed (decrease of the sleep and rest duration: -10,6% AZO group; -13,4% BLU group; triple time lasting of active type behaviours - playing, running, aggressive stances on both groups). These findings suggest that the usage of synthetic food dyes are a possible trigger of the ADHD condition in studied biological material, inducing anorexia and behavioural changes, as other studies conducted until now on laboratory animals suggested. However, a straight and absolute correlation between the experimental factors and ADHD onset could not be yielded, as large scale studies of this kind are very difficult to organize on human subjects.
Key words: Swiss mice, brilliant blue FCF-E133, azorubine-E122, body mass index, behaviour