GENETIC AMELIORATION OF SOME POPULATIONS OF APIS MELLIFERA CARPATICA BEES FROM AREA OF FORESTS OF MOLDOVA
Valentina Cebotari, I. Buzu, Olga Postolachi, Olesea Gliga
The aim of this paper was the creation, by scientific selection methods, of bee populations with increased morpho productive genetic potential, intended for reproduction of valuable genetic material for dissemination in small and medium apiaries. The research work was carried out on bee populations of Apis mellifera Carpatica race, from experimental apiaries of Institute of Zoology (IZ) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, which includes 50 bee colonies (considered as a middle apiary, after the number of families) and of the National Association of Beekeepers of Moldova (ANARM) with the number of 30 families (considered as small apiary), placed at stationary in forest areas of central part of Moldovan forests. Biological particularities, including external morphometric features that characterize the race purity (tegument color working bee, proboscis length, cubital index value, discoidal shift, specific (type) of cappings of cells with honey, bee behaviour by opening the nest and examining the honeycomb), and morpho productive potential of bee families (overwinter rezistance, queen prolificacy, family strenght, broods viability, resistance to disease and honey production) were evaluated during the years 2010-2014. On the basis of assessment of morpho productive features, annually each family of bees has been evaluated according to the complex of characters, and the class of evaluation was attributed, that indicates the morpho productive genetic potential and its breeding value. Annually, from the total number of evaluated bee populations, the best families were selected and included in breeding batch, then used for semen collections for artificial growth of honeybee queens. As a result of researches and selection at above apiaries, they were created and genetically consolidated 2 population of bee colonies with high productivity and resistance to diseases. Bee populations correspond to the race standard by external morphological features, which certifies the purity race, and possess high productivity at: productivity of honey (42.9–57.4 kg), increased resistance to diseases (91.6%) and overwinter rezistance (93.3–89.4%), the strong viability brood (92.3–92.4%), which, respectively, with 27.5%, 52.4%, 45.7-19.2% and 15.4-15.5% is higher than the race standards. Within the populations of colonies were created 2 batches of breeding with bees families genetically consolidated with high-level performance (proboscis length 6,60 - 6,62 mm, cubital index 44.6-45.3%, positive discoidal shift 84.5-93.0%, family strength 3.19-3.22 kg, queens prolificacy 1749-1873 eggs/24 h, overwinter rezistance 89.4-94.3%, brood viability - 92.4-92.5%, disease resistance 91.4-92.2%, honey production 49.3- 63.2 kg), correspond to the standards after morphological external features race purity, and far exceed the standard after morpho productive caracteries: queen prolificacy - with 9.3-17.1% (P < 0.001), family strength - with 36.9-39.2% (P < 0.001), overwinter rezistance - with 19.2-25.7% (P < 0.001), brood viability - with 15.5-15.6% (P < 0.001), disease resistance - with 52.3-54.7% (P < 0.001) and honey production - with 9.6-40.4% (P < 0.001).
Key words: genetic amelioration, Apis mellifera Carpatica, morpho productive caracteries