HAEMOGLOBIN TYPES IN THE CARPATHIAN BREED AND THEIR RELEVANCE FOR GOAT ADAPTATION
This study describes the genetic structure from the Hb locus in goats of the Carpathian breed. The haemotypification of the individuals at the Hb locus was achieved by horizontal electrophoresis in starch gel. The Carpathian goat presents a haemoglobin polymorphism of middle level with a structure of binary type. The haemoglobin polymorphism in the Carpathian breed was stood out by identification in the electrophoretical field of three migration zones: the fast haemoglobin named HbA type, the haemoglobin with intermediate migration labelled HbAB type and the slow haemoglobin designed HbB type. These phenotypes are determined by two co-dominant alleles, HbA and HbB. According to the codominance phenomenon, the haemoglobin phenotypes are similar to the haemoglobin genotypes. Thus, the two alleles control three haemoglobin genotypes: two homozygotes, HbAHbA and HbBHbB, and one heterozygote, HbAHbB. The allele HbB registers a higher frequency (69.13%) than the allele HbA (30.87 %). Therefore, the HbBHbB homozygotes register a high incidence in population (52.36%) in comparison with the other two genotypes; the heterozygotes HbAHbB have a middling frequency (12.31%) and the homozygotes HbAHbA are less spread (12.31%). From the viewpoint of general zygosity, the haemoglobin homozygotness (64.67%) is a little higher than the haemoglobin heterozygotness (35.33%). The environment conditions, selection systems or breeding technologies cannot disturb the Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium at the Hb locus level in the goat population of the Carpathian breed.
Key words: haemoglobin polymorphism, goat